Insularity and Oil Dependence in Marshall Islands

Insularity and Oil Dependence in Marshall Islands

Insularity and Oil Dependence in Marshall Islands

The Republic of Marshall Islands (RMI) a Small Island Development State is ecologically fragile and highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. Small size, limited resources, geographic dispersion and isolation from markets, place the island at high risk of insularity. Most importantly, as other remote archipelagos, the islands are facing a heavy and increasing reliance on imported petroleum products, which is a major threat to energy security.

The national priority is to respond to the vulnerability and dependence of the energy sources and to improve access to affordable and reliable sources of energy to enhance sustainable livelihoods contributing to the economic growth and development.

OIKO developed a climate finance scenario for the 11th European Development Fund (EDF) through a comprehensive assessment of climate readiness of the Energy Sector in the RMI. Following Green Climate Fund´s Readiness Tools and Guidebooks, we provided training to get ready to access climate finance.

After a consultative process with policy-makers about the public investment plan, a review of the macroeconomic scenario, the revenue collection strategy, the regulatory framework for both the public and private sector; the policy advice concluded in a new support program to four key strategic areas that include: national energy planning, energy to work towards the optimum utilization of energy resources, security, the power sector, and renewable energy development.

The proposed options resulted in a substantial increase in country’s electricity requirements to be met from renewable energy sources: biomass, solar, wind and other renewable resources, reducing imported petroleum for diesel back-up generators.

COUNTRY

Marshall Islands

IMPLEMENTATION PERIOD

2015

DONOR · PARTNER

EU

Majuro atoll in Marshal Islands

Center for Excellence for Renewable Energy in Indonesia

Center for Excellence for Renewable Energy in Indonesia

Palm Oil to blame for 39% of forest loss in Borneo since 2000

Indonesia and Malaysia produce about 85% of the world’s palm oil, which is used in everything from soaps, lipstick to pizza and biodiesel. Palm oil is putting one of the main sources of growth of Indonesia at risk: the rainforest in Borneo.

As in many tropical areas around the world, Borneo’s rainforests are being cut and degraded for timber, palm oil, pulp, rubber and minerals. Logging, land-clearing and conversion activities are considered to be the greatest threats to the Heart of Borneo. Of particular concern is the conversion of natural forests into palm oil and timber plantations.

Some palm oil farmers have been accused of using slash-and-burn methods to clear land for planting. The palm oil industry has long been blamed for encroaching on rain forests in Borneo, endangering wildlife such as orangutans and pygmy elephants.

Indonesia and Malaysia, lost 6.3 million hectares (15 million acres) of forest cover between 2000 and 2018, the data from the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), shows.

To respond to this challenge, OIKO supported the Ministry of Research and Technology of Indonesia with an assessment of sustainable and renewable energies potential (palm oil and timber byproducts as biomass) in East Kalimantan with the objective of creating an increasing renewable energy industry competitiveness for the sustainable economic development in Indonesia.

  • To develop a strategy for renewable energies and help set the priorities of the Ministry of State for Research & Technology.
  • Provide guidelines for energy efficient techniques trough integration of technologies and efficient energy planning, focused on finding optimized solutions to facilitate renewable and alternative access, such as biomass for combined heat and power production and development of sustainable biofuels.
  • Set foundations for the establishment of a Center for Excellence on Renewable Energies in West Kalimantan.

COUNTRY

Indonesia

IMPLEMENTATION PERIOD

2013

DONOR · PARTNER

EU

Orangutan from Kalimantan in Borneo

Pygmy elephants in East Kalimantan

Oil palm and rainforest fraction in Borneo

Reducing Climate Risk from Energy Investment in Namibia

Reducing Climate Risk from Energy Investment in Namibia

Reducing Climate Risk from Energy Investment in Namibia

Enabling access to clean and affordable energy is critical for sustainable development whether it be for nutrition, transport, education or economic opportunity.

Following UNDP´s Derisking Renewable Energy Investment (DREI) framework, OIKO supported the Government of Namibia prioritizing Investment for climate change mitigation. The DREI is an innovative tool to help public officials to prioritize sustainable energy investment.

OIKO assisted the Government of Namibia to identify the barriers and risks which can hold back private sector investment, and then supports policymakers to put in place packages of funds (grants) and targeted public interventions to address climate risks.

The initiative allows private sector organizations, non-state actors, local authorities to respond and address the issues of Climate Change Mitigation, including efficient and renewable energy technology investment.

 

Project Actions

  • Identified current deficiencies limiting renewable energy promotion
  • Identified the most vulnerable target groups/beneficiaries and the possible constraints to facilitate access off-grid
  • Proposed mitigation interventions such as: improving access to clean sustainable sources, reliable and affordable energy, rural electrification, rural roads infrastructure (rural electricity grids in highlands), reliability and commercial viability of solar and wind power, biomass, cooking stoves, small-scale hydropower dams

COUNTRY

Namibia

IMPLEMENTATION PERIOD

2012

DONOR · PARTNER

EU Delegation in Namibia

Tracking Climate Finance to Monitor Impact on Nature in Jamaica

Tracking Climate Finance to Monitor Impact on Nature in Jamaica

Tracking Climate Finance to Monitor Impact on Nature in Jamaica

Traditionally, Climate Public Expenditure Institutional Reviews (CPEIR) have been the most representative tools available to conduct assessments of public programs with climate change objectives in national strategic documents. OIKO conducted a CPEIR in the Forestry Sector in Jamaica to align EU budget support and provide supplementary robust data and evidence to base climate policy recommendations and future climate spending decisions – both for mitigation and adaptation.

Both, policy decision makers and the citizens need to understand how and how much they are spending (aid and tax revenues) on their national climate change responses. Climate change mainstreaming in budgeting process of different ministerial expenditures is today a prerequisite to comply with the National Determined Contributions to UNFCCC. Specifically, OIKO aided the Planning Institute, the Department of Forestry of Jamaica and the EU Delegation in preparing Climate Investment to help decision-makers to:

  • better understand the resource and gaps required to finance their national response to climate change
  • monitor and track climate finance flows – whether from domestic or foreign sources
  • assess the cost effectiveness and impact of existing and potential climate expenditures
  • prioritization of scarce public resources in order to achieve more climate-compatible national development
  • increase transparency over resource allocation and management.

COUNTRY

Jamaica

IMPLEMENTATION PERIOD

2017

DONOR · PARTNER

European Union

Blue mountains